Traditionally, The art of Piano Tuning is performed by ear, only.
Based on one note, the A at frequency 440HZ. This pitch is something most piano tuners just carry around with them all day long. For reference, the use of a tuning fork is allowed to help make the pitch as close to perfect as possible.
Piano Tuning is the maintenance of piano string tension. The piano was designed to withstand and sustain a certain pressure from the strings, which even in smaller pianos is greater than 60,000 lbs whether you play or not. When humidity changes, the wood reacts to the change, absorbing or losing moisture. This causes a change in pressure in the strings and that is why your piano goes out of tune more when you start heating your home in the fall, and again when you stop heating your home in the spring.
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